History of the Landscape in the Painting
Colloquium Landscape and Gardens, in May 30th, 2008
Study of François Murez - www.francois-murez.com
Colloquium organized by the Association Saint-Fiacre Loire-Baratte
Let us take advantage of this chapel of Chaluzy and of her period of construction to place the beginning of this intervention,
that is the neighborhood of the 1200s, period of the Middle Ages and time of the cathedrals.
The landscape in the Painting does not exist: the Nature is still in this period considered rough in all the spirits,
the Painting is only religion.
Giotto, St François (circa 1300)
The landscape, the garden in painting remain however a support. They allow to stage characters and serve background, of bottom,
to emphasize religious scenes. Soon, all these elements of the Nature get organized under the brush; the genius of the painters gives them a
strength which, gradually, is going to damage the global balance of paintings: it is a painting in the painting.
Fra Angelico, Announciation (circa 1400)
Van Eyck, The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin (circa 1435)
This specialization in the space of the painting is going to allow the painter to define rules, conventions, prospect
and so to free itself from the religious painting. The landscape can become a separate genre.
This window opened on the outside allows to leave, to find a breath and a freedom. The detail taken out of its context is a true painting in itself.
Patinir, St Jerome (circa 1515)
In this painting, the reversal is very clear. The landscape becomes the main object of the painting and the human and religious element
looks for itself. The space is panoramic and the very high placed horizon. The representation is not real but contains as much as possible of
different geographical elements and often little realistic.
Brueghel (1520 – 1569) , The Hunter in the Snow
In Italy, Utens paints médicéennes villas by 1600 in the same spirit.
Utens, Cafaggiolo & Collesalvetti (between 1599 and 1602)
This landscape of the world, powerful, magnificent, unreal, is then going to become landscape of the man, fragile, limited, real. And as such, the horizon is going to go down to return better to the painter its glance of man. The sky so liberated is going to be place of unfinished, of infinity.
Van Goyen, Landscape with 2 oaks (1641)
Rembrandt, The 3 trees (1643)
Van Goyen's painting and Rembrandt's engraving have the same composition but the opposite light.
Nicolas Poussin (1594 -1665), Apollon and Daphné
Lorrain (1604 – 1682), Landscape
Then, the landscape becomes romantic. Several tendencies show themselves. I would retain only that of Turner, English painter, having frequented the edges of the Loire. Turner liquefies his landscapes; the watercolor facilitates him its researches.
Turner, Scenes on the Loire, circa 1800
In opposition with the previous period when the landscape is construction regulated by the imagined, these landscapes are colors
which gather the moment of the felt. The drawing fades slowly and this disappearance will give rise to the impressionistic landscape.
The impressionistic landscape is the fulfillment of the genre. The touch of the painter becomes shivers and vibrations. Willows, very present in the Baratte, liquefy and melt into the water which bathes their feet.
Auguste Renoir, Willow and boat
The material does not have objectivity anymore, the constructed does not exist any more. The light, only moment of the painting, floods with its variations in colors, the eye of the painter.
Monet, The two willows
The painter is not more than an eye and the hand directly commanded by this organ without passage by the intellectual, constructed and emotional.
Vincent Van Gogh, Iris
To others, the emotional is serene.
class=titreb>E. Steichen, Clara Steichen in her garden, 1908.
In the twentieth century, materialistic and consumer-oriented society, industrialization and communication make throw out the landscape of the
painting, because this one is foreign to the technological utopias and to the artificial worlds, the symbols turned out the power of the man.
Nicolas de Staël, Sicile 1954
The destroyed, amputated landscapes, the deformed nature bring however the artist to return towards this subject and to consider it again to mean all the fragility.
Olivier Debré, Iris
François Murez, La Baratte, Lettuces, 2006
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